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Clinical Data and Published Papers 

Listed below are all the Clinical Papers that have been published reflecting the effectiveness and use of Germicidal UVC that have been used in most settings Safely 

Click on heading to read full clinical paper 

01

Faatiema Saliea*, Trust Saidi

Potential of ultraviolet germicidal irradiation for infection prevention and control of SARS-CoV-2 in South Africa Faatiema Saliea*, Trust Saidib a Division of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa b Centre for Technology, Innovation and Culture, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway Received 18 September 2020; Accepted 3 November 2020; Published online 27 November 2020

03

Matsie Mphaphlele1, Ashwin S. Dharmadhikari2, Paul A. Jensen3, Stephen N. Rudnick4, Tobias H. van Reenen5,Marcello A. Pagano6, Wilhelm Leuschner7, Tim A. Sears8, Sonya P. Milonova4, Martie van der Walt9, Anton C. Stoltz10,Karin Weyer11, and Edward A. Nardell2,1

Rationale: Transmission is driving the global tuberculosis epidemic, especially in congregate settings. Worldwide, natural ventilation is the most common means of air disinfection, but it is inherently unreliable and of limited use in cold climates. Upper room germicidal ultraviolet (UV) air disinfection with air mixing has been shown to be highly effective, but improved evidence-based dosing guidelines are needed.

05

Objectives: We evaluated the safety of room occupants in the Tuberculosis Ultraviolet Shelter Study (TUSS), a double-blind, placebo-controlled field trial of upper-room ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) at 14 homeless shelters in six U.S. cities from 1997 to 2004.

07

Implementation of environmental cleaning and disinfection has been shown to reduce the incidences of healthcare-associated infections. The effect of an enhanced strategy for terminal room disinfection, applying the pulsed xenon-based ultraviolet light no-touch disinfection systems (PX-UVC) after the current standard operating protocol (SOP) was evaluated. In a teaching hospital, the effectiveness in reducing the total bacterial count (TBC) and in eliminating high-concern microorganisms was assessed on five high-touch surfaces in different critical areas,

09

The potential virucidal effects of UV-C irradiation on SARS-CoV-2 were experimentally evaluated for different illumination doses and virus concentrations (1000, 5, 0.05 MOI). At a virus density comparable to that observed in SARS-CoV-2 infection, an UV-C dose of just 3.7 mJ/cm2 was sufficient to achieve a more than 3-log inactivation without any sign of viral replication. Moreover, a complete inactivation at all viral concentrations was observed with 16.9 mJ/cm2. These results could explain the epidemiological trends of COVID-19 and are important for the development of novel sterilizing methods to contain SARS-CoV-2 infection.

11

The potential virucidal effects of UV-C irradiation on SARS-CoV-2 were experimentally evaluated for different illumination doses and virus concentrations (1000, 5, 0.05 MOI). At a virus density comparable to that observed in SARS-CoV-2 infection, an UV-C dose of just 3.7 mJ/cm2 was sufficient to achieve a more than 3-log inactivation without any sign of viral replication. Moreover, a complete inactivation at all viral concentrations was observed with 16.9 mJ/cm2. These results could explain the epidemiological trends of COVID-19 and are important for the development of novel sterilizing methods to contain SARS-CoV-2 infection.

13

A. Roderick Escombe ,David A. J Moore, Robert H Gilman, Marcos Navincopa, Eduardo Ticona, Bailey Mitchell Catherine Noakes, Carlos Martínez, Patricia Sheen, Rocio Ramirez, Willi Quino, Armando Gonzalez, Jon S Friedland,Carlton A Evans

Institutional tuberculosis (TB) transmission is an important public health problem highlighted by the HIV/AIDS pandemic and the emergence of multidrug- and extensively drug-resistant TB. Effective TB infection control measures are urgently needed. We evaluated the efficacy of upper-room ultraviolet (UV) lights and negative air ionization for preventing airborne TB transmission using a guinea pig air-sampling model to measure the TB infectiousness of ward air.

15

Arthur Downes and Thos. P. Blunt

The investigation to which the following communication relates was undertaken by us with the view of ascertaining, first, whether light could be shown to exert any appreciable influence, favourable or the reverse, upon the development of Bacteria amid other organisms in certain of those solutions which afford a suitable medium for their appearance and increase. We feel justified in thus presenting our earlier researches and the conclusions drawn from them, by considering that every fact, however small, which tends to throw light upon the life-history of these organisms is of importance as bearing upon questions of the highest moment and most varied interest.

17

Linda D. Leea, George Delclosb, Matthew Lee Berkheiserc, Monique T. Barakatd, and Paul ArthurJensen

The use of ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) to combat disease transmission has come into the international spotlight again because of the recent SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and on going outbreaks of multi drug resistant organisms in hospitals. Although the implementation of ultraviolet disinfection technology is widely employed in healthcare facilities and its effectiveness has been repeatedly demonstrated, the use of such technology in the commercial sector has been limited. Considering that most disease transmission occurs in commercial public, and residential indoor environments as opposed to healthcare facilities, there is a needto understand whether ultraviolet (UV) disinfection technology can be effective for mitigating disease transmission in these environments. The results presented here demonstrate that the installation of fixed in-room UVGI air cleaners in commercial buildings, including restaurants and offices, can produce significant reductions in both airborne and surface-borne bacterial contamination.

02

Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) is a highly effective means of inactivating many bacteria, viruses, and fungi. UVGI is an attractive viral mitigation strategy against coronaviruses, including the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the cause of the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This investigation measures the susceptibility of two human coronaviruses to inactivation by 254 nm UV-C radiation.

04

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has devastated global public health systems and economies, with over 52 million people infected, millions of jobs and businesses lost, and more than 1 million deaths recorded to date. Contact with surfaces contaminated with droplets generated by infected persons through exhaling, talking, coughing and sneezing is a major driver of SARS-CoV-2 transmission, with the virus being able to survive on surfaces for extended periods of time. 

06

As the world’s economies come out of the lockdown imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic, there is an urgent need for technologies to mitigate COVID-19 transmission in confined spaces such as buildings. This feasibility study looks at one such technology, upper-room ultraviolet (UV) air disinfection, that can be safely used while humans are present in the room space, and which has already proven its efficacy as an intervention to inhibit the transmission of airborne diseases such as measles and tuberculosis. 

08

Ultraviolet (UV) light can inactivate SARS-CoV-2. However, the practicality of UV light is limited by the carcinogenic potential of mercury vapor-based UV lamps. Recent advances in the development of krypton chlorine (KrCl) excimer lamps hold promise, as these emit a shorter peak wavelength (222 nm), which is highly absorbed by the skin's stratum corneum and can filter out higher wavelengths. In this sense, UV 222 nm irradiation for the inactivation of virus particles in the air and surfaces is a potentially safer option as a germicidal technology. However, these same physical properties make it harder to reach microbes present in complex solutions, such as saliva, a critical source of SARS-CoV-2 transmission.

10

DHHS (NIOSH) PUBLICATION NUMBER 2009-105

12

When Willy Sutton was asked why he robbed banks, he is said to have answered, "Because that's where the money is." If we were to ask my copanelists, Drs. Dooley and Jarvis, why the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has placed such emphasis on tuberculosis isolation rooms and on respirators to be worn in them, they might likewise reply, "Because that's where the risk is."

14

The potential virucidal effects of UV-C irradiation on SARS-CoV-2 were experimentally evaluated for different illumination doses and virus concentrations (1000, 5, 0.05 MOI). At a virus density comparable to that observed in SARS-CoV-2 infection, an UV-C dose of just 3.7 mJ/cm2 was sufficient to achieve a more than 3-log inactivation without any sign of viral replication. Moreover, a complete inactivation at all viral concentrations was observed with 16.9 mJ/cm2. These results could explain the epidemiological trends of COVID-19 and are important for the development of novel sterilizing methods to contain SARS-CoV-2 infection.

16

Gwangpyo Ko, Melvin W First and Harriet A Burge

In this study, we explored the efficacy of upper-room ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) in reducing the concentration of Serratia marcescens and Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) aerosols in enclosed places. We constructed a facility (4.5 m x 3 m x 2.9 m) in which both ceiling- and wall-mounted UV fixtures (UV output: 10W and 5W respectively) were installed.

18

The concern with environmental security to avoid contamination of individuals was intensified with the crisis established by SARS-CoV-2. The COVID-19 pandemic has shown the necessity to create systems and devices capable of clearing the air in an environment of micro-organisms more efficiently. The development of systems that allow the removal of micro-droplets mainly originating from breathing or talking from the air was the motivation of this study.

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